Contents

Appendix 3
Other forms of penalty

In this appendix we provide additional information about some other forms of State penalties and remedies that are pursued mainly through civil procedures and which fall outside the scope of this review. The intention is to flag interventions that may be said to resemble civil pecuniary penalties and to identify the variations in form and terminology. The range of variations demonstrates a general trend towards more tailored and strategic interventions in some regulatory regimes.